Species, ecosystem and genetic diversity
A specific geographic location of the line confronting Central European and Mediterranean influences, geotectonic turbulent dynamics and diversity of geological, geomorphological, hydrological, climatic and pedological characteristics, produced to Serbia is an area of exceptional gene, of species and ecosystem diversity. Balkan Peninsula, with parts of Serbia, is one of 25 "hot spots" of biodiversity plan, or centers of biodiversity.
- Diversity of ecosystems: the territory of Serbia is represented most ecosystems of Europe, because of the diversity of relief, substrate, climate and other factors on a relatively small area;
- Forested areas: the Corine Land Cover 2000 in Serbia (excluding Kosovo and Metohija) forest area is 2,266,333 ha, which represents 29.2% of the territory. Forest cover in Central Serbia is about 47%, while 8.5% in Vojvodina. In the forests of Serbia were registered 78 species of trees, of which the most common beech, hornbeam, oak and locust.
- Variety of types: the territory of Serbia is occupied only 1.9% of the continent, and living on its territory:
• 39% of vascular plants of Europe;
• 51% of the fish fauna of Europe;
• 49% of reptile and amphibian fauna of Europe;
• 74% of the bird fauna of Europe;
• 67% of the mammalian fauna of Europe.
In Serbia, officially registered about 44,200 taxa (species and subspecies). Ascertained with 3662 taxa of vascular plants in the rank of species and subspecies (39% of the total European flora), the Republic of Serbia is among the group of countries with the highest floristic diversity in Europe. The greatest wealth and diversity of plants are present in the high regions of Serbia. Another important feature of the flora of Serbia is pronounced endemism and the presence of characteristic plant species related to the territory of Serbia or the Balkans (species with limited distribution in the territory of Serbia or the Balkans.) Local endemics make up about 1.5% of the total flora of Serbia (59 species), while that of the Balkan endemics around 14.94% (547 species). Endemic species are especially characteristic for high mountainous areas of Serbia. About 5% of the total flora of Serbia (171 taxa in the rank of species and subspecies) are found in the "intestinal flora of Serbia 1 book," which describes the extinct and highly endangered plant species. Of these four endemic taxa disappear from the world's gene pool, 46 disappeared from the territory of the Republic of Serbia, but can still be found in neighboring countries, while 121 taxa is extremely endangered, with a tendency to extinction if they do not take certain conservation measures.
In the Republic of Serbia are registered and described 625 species of fungi (Macromiceta) and 586 species of lichen species, with estimates that the number of species of fungi is much higher.
In Serbia there are more than 50% of the European fauna of vertebrates. Of 178 species that are found on the European Red List of Serbia represented 42 species or 23.6%. Serbia has published the preliminary list of species of vertebrates Red List of Serbia, which is the starting point for work on the Red List of Vertebrates of the Republic of Serbia.
So far, registered between 98 and 110 species of fish and kolousta in Serbia. In total 13 species proposed for the Red List of Vertebrates of Serbia, a registered and 19 taxa of international importance.
The territory of Serbia inhabited by 21 species of amphibians and 25 reptile species and 20 subspecies. As during the audit of individual taxa, their possible rising to the level of species will certainly be an increase this number.
Number of bird species in all categories of Serbia (nesting, wintering species in Serbia, which are registered with the migration, potentially present) is around 360, and internationally significant 343rd
So far in Serbia registered 94 species of mammals, or 50.51% of total teriofaune Europe. Of these, 68 species are found in the Preliminary Red List of Vertebrates of Serbia, and 16 on the European Red List.